|FAO No. 1, s. 1947||Organization and Functions of the Bureau of Fisheries|
|FAO No. 1, s. 1965||Organization of the Philippine Fisheries Commission.|
|FAO No. 1-1, s. 1968||Amending Section 5 subsection 19, column no. 6, FAO No. 1, by establishing a new substation at Calbayog City.|
|FAO No. 2, s. 1933||Deepsea or offshore fishing and regulations.|
|FAO No. 2-1, s. 1934||Amending Sections 20 and 25 of FGAO No. 2 re: Collection and accounting of fees.|
|FAO No. 2-2, s. 1935||Amendment to Deepsea or Offshore Fishing Regulations.|
|FAO No. 2-3, s. 1939||Amending Section 6 of FGAO No. 2, as amended by FGAO No. 2, as amended by FGAO No. 2-2 by inserting a new proviso.|
|FAO No. 2-4, s. 1939||Suspending the effects of FGAO No. 2, dated Jan. 27, 1939, re: licenses on operation of boats.|
|FAO No. 2-5, s. 1939||Amending Section 24 of FGAO No. 2, re: amount of cash bond.|
|FAO No. 2-6, s. 1939||Amending Section 21 of FGAO No. 2, re: amount of license fee.|
|JAO No. 01 Series of 2015||Establishment of a Closed Season for the Management of Galunggong (roundscad; Decapterus spp.) in Northern Palawan|
Republic of the Philippines
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY
Diliman, Quezon City
July 28, 1975
FISHERIES ADMINISTRATIVE )
ORDER NO. 117:
Series of 1975)
SUBJECT: Rules and regulations governing the operation of processing plants for fish and fishery/aquatic products and prescribing/requiring standards, quality control and inspection or processed fish and fishery/aquatic products.
Pursuant to the provisions of Sections 7, 16 and 18 of Presidential Decree No. 704, otherwise known as the Fisheries Decree of 1975, the following rules and regulations governing the operation of processing plants for fish and fishery/aquatic products and prescribing/requiring standards, quality control and inspection of fish and fishery/aquatic products are hereby promulgated for the information and guidance of all concerned:
Section 1. As used in this administrative order, the following terms are defined:
a) Chilling - is a process where the product is cooled to the temperature of melting ice 0°C (32°F).
b) Dehydration - is the loss of moisture from the frozen product through evaporation.
c) Fish - includes all fishes and other aquatic animals such as crustaceans (crabs, prawns, shrimps and lobsters) and mollusks (clams, mussels, scallops, oysters, snails and other shellfish).
d) Fishery/aquatic products - includes all other products of aquatic living resources in any form.
e) Fresh shrimps/prawns - are freshly caught shrimps/prawns which have received no preserving treatment, or which have been preserved only by chilling.
f) Frozen fish - fish which have been subjected to a freezing processing sufficient to reduce the temperature of the product to 18°C (0°F) to preserve its quality and to maintain said product at this temperature.
g) Frozen shrimps/prawns - shrimps/prawns which may be whole, headless with shell on, peeled, peeled and deveined, cooked, or uncooked, which have been subjected to a freezing process sufficient to reduce the temperature of the product to - 18°C(0°F) to preserve its quality and to maintain said product at this temperature.
h) Glazing - a process is which a thin protective layer of ice is allowed to form on the surface of the frozen product by spraying it with, or dipping it into, portable water plus certain acceptable additives in order to prevent dehydration and oxidation of said product.
i) Gutted fish - fish from which the guts or internal organs have been removed.
j) Person - includes juridical entities such as partnerships, associations, cooperatives and corporations.
k) Potable water - fresh water fit for human consumption. Standards of potability should not be lower than those contained in the "International Standards for Drinking Water," World Organization, 1963.
l) Processing plant - an establishment wherein the handling, preparation and processing of fish or fishery/aquatic products are done with the use of processing equipment in accordance with the standards herein prescribed.
m) Quick freezing - is a process by which the product is frozen hard to the center to a temperature of-40°C within a period of one hour or less.
n) Refrigerated seawater - is clean seawater cooled by the addition of clean quality ice and/or by a suitable refrigeration system.
o) Sharp freezing - is a process by which the product is frozen hard to the center to a temperature - of - 10°F within a period of three (3) hours.
p) Steak - is a section of a fish removed by cutting approximately at right angles to the backbone.
MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR PROCESSING PLANTS
Sec. 2. Operation of processing plants for fish and fishery/aquatic products. - No person shall operate a processing plant for fish or fishery/aquatic products unless he complies with the minimum requirements prescribed in this chapter: Provided, That existing processing plants are hereby given a period of two (2) years from the effectivity of this Order to comply with said requirements.
Sec. 3. Processing plants to comply with minimum requirements. - To insure that the processing of fish or fishery/aquatic products is undertaken under ideal sanitary hygienic conditions, the following must be complied with/maintain at all times:
A. THE PHYSICAL PLANT -
1. Floors - The surface of floors in the working areas where fish or fishery/aquatic products are received, held, processed or packaged should be sloped for effective drainage and constructed of concrete and/or non-slippery titles or similar materials.
2. Walls - inside walls in wet working areas where the products are received, held, processed or packaged should basically be made of concrete: Provided, That smooth tiles should line the lower section of the walls from the floor to a height of not less than four (4) feet depending on the use of that specific area and considering liquid splash due to process operation.
3. Mezzanine floor - No mezzanine floor shall be constructed between the floor and the ceiling of the processing area: Provided, That catwalks to service and maintain overhead conveyors and other fittings as integral parts of a processing machinery may be constructed. Such catwalks must be kept clean.
4. Ceiling - The working area where the products are handled from the receiving to the packaging process should have ceilings that are free from cracks, crevices and open joints, and constructed of smooth, washable, light colored materials to permit easy cleaning and maintenance.
5. Lighting - Illuminations of at least twenty-foot candles should be provided on all working areas.
6. Entrance and exits. - All entrances and exits must be provided with screened doors swinging outward. Windows must also be screened.
7. Ventilation - Vent blowers must be installed in strategic places in the processing area and filtered air must be provided for adequate ventilation. Intake air blowers may be, installed, if so desired.
8. Toilet and toilet facilities -
a. There shall be such number of flush toilets for the use of employees as fixed hereunder:
1 to 9 employees 1 toilet bowl
10 to 24 employees 2 toilet bowls
25 to 49 employees 3 toilet bowls
50- 100 employees 5 toilet bowls
Over 1001 additional toilet bowl.
b. Showers shall also he provided.
c. Good drainage for the toilet/showed areas should he maintained.
d. Rules for area of toilet must be posted in the room.
9. Handwashing facilities - the handwashing facilities should be adequate in number and strategically located with a satisfactory supply of hot and cold water, liquid or powdered soap and other conveniences for sanitary practices. They should be visible from the working area so that the supervisory staff can see if handwashing is properly observed and carried out.
1. Installation - the equipment should be so installed and located that cleaning and servicing thereof shall be safe and easy.
2. Food-contact surfaces of equipment - Food - contact surfaces should be cleaned and steam-flushed, chlorinated and/or cold-sterilized, as the case may be, at the end of each work shift.
The food-contact surfaces of equipment should be constructed of suitable materials free of cracks, crevices and rust or paint.
3. Non-food contact surface - Non-food contact surfaces like frames and legs of all equipment on which fish or fishery/aquatic products are processed or packed should be constructed of metal to facilitate cleaning and easy maintenance. No wooden material should be used as an integral part of the processing equipment.
4. Lubricants - Lubricants used in processing machinery such as seamers and can closing machines and product sealer must be of good grade; bearings for conveyors and other machines which are not directly in contact with food during processing may use the prescribe lubricant and oil.
C. PROCEDURE TO BE FOLLOWED IN FREEZING PRODUCTS
1. Fish must be washed with clean water and chilled immediately with refrigerated sea water or water with equivalent salinity (approx. 3%).
2. The chilled fish must then be placed in metal trays and be subjected to a freezing process that shall be carried out in an appropriate equipment in such a way that the range of temperature of maximum crystallization is reached quickly. The quick-freezing process shall not be regarded as complete unless and until the product temperature has reached -18°C (0°F) at the thermal centre after thermal stabilization.
D. COLD STORAGE-
1. Maximum cold storage temperature should be maintained at - 18°C (0°F).
2. Water drainage of storage room must end in a water trap to seal off outside air.
3. Insulated doors must be provided with rubber seal and safety locks.
4. Anteroom must be provided with overhead cooling coils.
5. Non-drip overhead coils must be provided with bunker loft.
6. Dial thermometer should be provided near entrance of storage room.
7. Warning signs for sub-zero temperature at entrance of specific storage room should be provided.
E. PRODUCTION REQUIREMENTS -
1. The fish or fishery/aquatic products should be inspected and stored to remove unfit products and then adequately washed with potable water prior to further processing.
2. Boxes, carts, bins and other containers used for holding fish or fishery/aquatic products before they are processed or shipped should be made of metal or plastic material, and must have good drainage.
3. Frozen product packaging materials should be stored properly in a clean and sanitary manner. They should not contain objectionable substances that may be transmitted to the product during the packaging stage of the process. Proper technique should be observed to avoid introduction of contaminents to the product.
F. PERSONNEL OF THE PLANT -
1. All employees engaged in processing operations should wear appropriate and washable working clothes and proper headgear.
2. A medical check-up should be required for every employee annually.
3. Employees who handle processed fish or fishery/aquatic products with their bare hands should have short, unpolished fingernails. No person should be allowed to smoke or spit in the working area.
G. PREMISES OF THE PLANT -
The premises should be free from rodents. A rodent and insect control program should be maintained in the plant: Provided, That when pesticides or rodenticides are used, proper technique in their application should be observed to prevent contamination with the product. Periodic application of pesticides in the form of fumigants should be undertaken during non-production time only, at least a week.
Waste materials and other refuse should be collected and disposed daily.
H. USE OF LIFTRUCKS AND FORKLIFTS -
Where liftrtrucks and forklifts are used, only lifttrucks shall be used inside the processing area; forklifts may be used in the packaging area.
QUALITY STANDARDS FOR SHRIMPS/PRAWNS
Sec. 4. Shrimps/prawns to conform with quality standards. - No permit to export shrimps/prawns shall be issued by the Bureau unless the shrimps/prawns have been processed, inspected, and passed to conform with the quality standards hereinafter established.
A. TYPES - Frozen shrimps, prawns are classified into the following types:
1. Whole - the head is retained.
2. Headless with head on - the head is removed but the shell of the body is retained.
3. Peeled - head and shell are removed.
4. Peeled and de-veined - the shell and vein in the alimentary canal are removed.
5. Cooked or uncooked.
B. GRADES - Depending upon appearance, color, flavor and odor, tissue or texture and other factors, shrimps/prawns are classified into four (4) grades, as follows:
|1. Appearance||Whole shrimp is in its original form. Shrimp which has the head carapace in technical term) completely removed, but still in good form without being split or broken.||Whole shrimp has a fairly good form, or is slightly broken. Headless shrimp has the head (carapace in technical term) almost completely removed; holds fairly good form, or is split or broken.||Whole shrimp not in good form, or is split or broken. Headless shrimp which leaves the part of the head (carapace in technical term) unremoved but does not hold good form/s, or is split or broken.||Whole shrimp is deformed conspicuously or is split or broken. Headless shrimp which has the great or part (carapace) unremoved, or split or broken conspicuously.|
|2. Color||The shrimp keeps the characteristic color of the particularly species without any sign of dehydration or other changes in color.||The shrimp keeps fair good color or gives slight sign of the grayish white caused by dehydration or other changing color.||Shrimp which is not of good color, for example grayish white as caused by dehydration. Shrimp possesses color in the tail parts.||Shrimp is discolored or gives conspicuously a sign of grayish white cause by dehydration or other changes of color.|
|3. Flavor||Shrimp has good original flavor free from such odors as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, trimethylamine or any other odor that is not characteristic of the particular species of shrimp.||Shrimp has a fairly good flavor or almost free from such odors as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, trimethylamine or any other odor that is not characteristic of of shrimp.||Shrimp does not have good flavor or give such odors as of hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, trimethylamine or any other odor that is not characteristic of a particular species of shrimp.||Shrimp keeps hardly any flavor, or give out conspicuously odors as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, trimethylamine or any other odor that is not characteristic of a particular species of shrimp.|
|4. Tissue or texture||Shrimp with its flesh reasonably tight and elastic. No signs of a sponge-like tissue or other abnormal tissues that is not characteristic of particular species of the shrimp.||Shrimp with tissue fairly tight and elastic, or gives slight sign of the sponge-like or other abnormal tissue that is not characteristic of particular species of the shrimp.||Shrimp with tissues which lacks a reasonable or fair tightness and elasticity or gives a sign of sponge-like or other abnormal tissue that is not characteristic particular species of shrimp||Shrimp with tissue which is too soft or gives a conspicuous sign of the sponge-like or other abnormal tissue that is not characteristic of particular species of shrimp.|
|5. Uniformity||The shrimp for each type and grade shall be uniform in size and should not be mixed with other species and soft shells.|
|6. Undesirable substances||The shrimps shall be free from foreign materials such as splintered shells, spins, legs and other foreign substances.|
|7. Glaze||For export, the glaze shall be clean, non-toxic, even and thick enough to prevent dehydration.|
C. QUALITY STANDARD FOR SHRIMPS/PRAWNS PRICE TO PROCESSING. -
Only shrimps/prawns meeting the following required quality standards shall be processed:
1. must be fresh, clean and wholesome, without any visible sign of spoilage;
2. the color must be typical of freshly-caught shrimps/prawns;
3. the meat must be firm and free from hydro-sulfate, ammonia or any other odor not characteristic of the particular species; and
4. the size in a specific assortment must be almost uniform; different species must not be mixed together.
D. PROCEDURE IN PROCESSING ?
1. The shrimps/prawns that passed the above quality standards must be frozen in containers of suitable size as per specification of the buyer/consignee. The containers must be made either of aluminum or galvanized or stainless steel, and if galvanized steel, it must be free from rust. In all cases, the containers must be clean.
2. The containers must have a uniform coating of wax in the inside surface and/or lined with a suitable waterproof material. The outside surface of the containers shall, if possible, be also given a coat of wax.
3. The shrimps/prawns shall then be chilled to 0°C(32°F) and quick-frozen at a temperature of -30°C to -40°C in the shortest time possible. The time required to freeze the 2.5 cm. thick brick of frozen shrimp shall not exceed three (3) hours.
E. SAMPLING FOR THE PURPOSE OF CONDUCTING TESTS -
For the purpose of conducting tests to determine conformity with quality standards, representative samples shall be taken from such number of master-cartons to be drawn at random from each lot as hereinafter determine.
No. of Master Cartons No. of Master-Cartons in the lot to be drawn
Up to 50......................................... 2
51 to 100........................................ 3
101 to 150...................................... 4
151 to 200...................................... 5
201 to 300...................................... 6
301and above................................. 7
From each of the master-cartons so selected, draw at random one container the contents of which shall be subjected to inspection and examination.
F. CONDUCT OF THE INSPECTION AND EXAMINATION -
Inspection and examination shall be conducted by duly authorized employees of the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources who shall make an exterior inspection of the cases as regards their general state or condition, marks and labels. Thereafter, they shall proceed to a systematic organoleptic examination of the shrimps/prawns to verify conformity with the requirements of each particular grade.
In case of doubt about the quality, the inspector shall submit samples to the Quality Control Laboratory of the BFAR for the following examinations:
a) determination of total bacterial count;
b) determination of Escherichia coli
QUALITY STANDARDS FOR FROZEN TUNA
Sec. 5. Frozen tuna for export must conform with quality standards. - No permit to export frozen tuna shall be issued by the Bureau unless the fish has been processed, inspected and found to conform with the quality standards hereinafter prescribed:
A. SPECIES COVERED BY THIS CHAPTER. - Only the following species of tuna are covered by this chapter:
1. Yellowfin (neethunnus macropterus)
2. Bluefin (Thunnus thymus)
3. Skipjack (Kateuwonus pelamis)
4. Big-eye (Parathunnus mebachi)
5. Albacore (Germo alalunga)
B. GRADES. - Depending on the freshness and other characteristics, tuna, pri1er to freezing, shall be classified into four (4) grades, to wit:
1. Grade 1 - shall consist of strictly fresh fish possessing the following characteristics:
a) clear bright eyes
b) bright red colored gills
c) fresh odor
d) firm flesh
e) intact belly walls
f) bright body color
g) free from discoloration, loose scales, bruises, abrasions, cuts, punctures or other injuries.
Not more than five percent (5%) by weight of the fish in any lot may fail to meet the above requirements: Provided, That the fish included in the five percent (5%) must meet the requirements for the next lower grade.
2. Grade 2 - shall consist of chilled or frozen (quick or sharp) fish which fail to meet the requirements for Grade 1, but which has the following characteristics:
a) clear bright eyes
b) bright red colored gills
c) fresh odor
d) firm flesh
e) intact belly walls
f) normal body color characteristics of the species
g) free from discoloration, serious damages such as loose scales, bruises, abrasions, cuts, punctures, or other injuries.
Not more than five percent (5%) by weight of the fish in any lot may fail to meet the above requirements: Provided, That the fish included in the five percent (5%) shall meet the requirements of the next lower grade.
3. Grade 3 - shall consist of fish which fail to meet the requirements of Grades 1 and 2 but which has the following characteristics:
a) eyes are slightly sunken, pupil grayish
b) gills are slightly discolored and shiny
c) body is covered with somewhat milky slims
d) flesh and backbone are slightly soft
e) abdomen and belly walls are slightly soft
f) odor is slightly sour and somewhat like bread or weak acetic acid.
4. Off-grade - shall consist of fish which fail to meet the requirements of Grade 3 must be rejected.
C. QUALITY STANDARDS FOR TUNA PRIOR TO PROCESSING -
Only tuna of the species mentioned in paragraph A above meeting the following required standards shall be processed:
1. must meet the requirements of the particular grade to which they belong.
2. must be fresh as determined by the organoleptic method and
3. fish must hold its original form without having conspicuous defects left by removal of parasite, green meats and hook marks, gaff wounds and bruises.
D. PROCEDURE IN PROCESSING -
1. Fish must be gutted, bled properly, washed and cooled down depending upon the export requirement and size.
2. Fish should be glazed to the required thickness to prevent dehydration and oxidation.
3. Fish must be quick frozen in appropriate equipment so that the range of temperature of maximum crystallization is reached as soon as possible. The quick-freezing process shall not be regarded as completed unless and until the temperature of the fish reaches -40°C (-40°F) at the center after thermal stabilization.
4. The fish must be maintained at a low temperature to maintain the quality during transportation, storage and distribution up to, and including the time of, final sale.
E. SAMPLING FOR PURPOSES OF CONDUCTING TESTS -
To determine conformity with quality standards, representative samples of fish for examination shall be taken for each lot, as follows:
No. of fish in shipment No. of fish in sample
60 to 200.......................................... 2
201 to 600........................................ 4
601 to 2,000..................................... 6
Over 2,000....................................... 8
F. CONDUCT OF INSPECTION AND EXAMINATION -
Inspection and examination shall be conducted by duly authorize employees of the Bureau. In case of doubt regarding the quality of the fish, the inspector shall submit samples to the Quality Control laboratory of the Bureau for the following examinations:
1. determination of total bacterial count
2. determination of Escherichia coli.
G. MANNER OF SHIPMENT -
1. the fish shall be shipped in frozen state in containerize seagoing refrigerated vans.
2. the frozen tuna should be sufficiently glazed to give the fish a protective coating during transport from the processing plant to destination.
3. The following information shall appear on the outside cover of each individual container:
a) The words "Product of the Philippines"
b) Net weight (expressed in metric units)
c) Name and address of the distributor
d) Species of fish
PENAL AND OTHER PROVISIONS
Sec. 6. Penalty. - Violation of this Order shall subject the offender to a fine of not less than five hundred (P500.00) pesos nor more than five thousands (P5,000.00) pesos or imprisonment from six (6) months to four (4) years or both such fine and imprisonment in the discretion of the Court:
Provided, That the Director of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources is hereby empowered to impose upon the offender an administrative fine of not more than' five thousand pesos (P5,000.00) or to cancel his permit or license in the discretion of the said Director.
Sec. 7. Repeal of inconsistent orders, rules and regulations. - All orders, rules and regulations inconsistent with the provisions of this Order are revoked and superseded accordingly.
Sec. 8. Effectivity. - This Order shall take effect fifteen (15) days after its publication in the Official Gazette and/or two (2) newspapers of general circulation.
(SIGNED) JOSE J. LEIDO, JR.
Secretary of Natural Resources
(SGD.) FELIX R. GONZALES
Director of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
August 27, 1975 - Daily Express
September 13, 1975 - Times Journal